Elihu Harris State Office Building
AGENCY REPORTS ON CURRENT IAQ ACTIVITIES
American Lung Association of Los Angeles County (ALA-LAC)WORKING GROUP COMMITTEES
California Air Resources Board / IAQ & Personal Exposure Assessment Program
California Department of Health Service / Environmental Health Investigations Branch
California Department of Health Service / Indoor Air Quality Section
California Department of Health Service / Occupational Health Branch
California Department of Industrial Relations (Cal/OSHA)
California Energy Commission
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Indoor Environment Program
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment / Indoor Air Risk Assessment Group
U.S. EPA Region IX / Indoor Environment Team
University of California at Berkeley - Environment Health and Safety
Indoor Environmental Quality of SchoolsFUTURE MEETINGS
Building Design and Operations
MEMBERS PRESENT/AFFILIATIONS PRESENT AT MEETING
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Common Indoor Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds:
Emission Rates and Techniques for Reducing Consumer Exposures
Alfred T. Hodgson ()
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA
Abstract - Paints and many materials used to finish the interiors of buildings emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including toxic air contaminants (TACs). These emissions result in exposures to occupants. The Air Resources Board (ARB) is required to consider such indoor exposures in assessing risks from TACs to public health. Thus, it is necessary for the ARB to identify indoor sources of VOCs and to characterize their emissions. The ARB also provides information to the public regarding ways to reduce both indoor and outdoor exposures to TACs.
In this study, large-scale chamber experiments were conducted with a combination of latex paints and new carpet and vinyl flooring assemblies. The first objective was to characterize the emissions of VOCs from the assemblies at simulated residential conditions. The second objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that consumers might employ during new construction and/or renovation to reduce the concentrations of VOCs and their exposures to these VOCs. The techniques included: increased ventilation for three days following installation (each source); airing out of materials for two days prior to installation (carpet and vinyl flooring); and mild heating for three days following installation (combined sources). Short-term ventilation typically reduced the room air concentrations of VOCs only during the period of increased ventilation. Airing out of materials generally reduced the emissions of VOCs from carpet materials but was ineffective for VOCs emitted by vinyl flooring. Heating applied after materials were installed had mixed results.
Research funded by the California Air Resources Board Research Division,
Contract No. 95-302.
From the presentation:
Practices to Reduce Exposures
AGENCY REPORTS ON CURRENT IAQ ACTIVITIES
Lung Association of Los Angeles County (ALA-LAC)
- David Berger ()
National ALA. The National Office of the American Lung Association (ALA) recently adopted Environmental Health issues as one of its core program areas. A major emphasis will be to promote IAQ issues and IAQ Tools for Schools (IAQ TFS). Currently, over 40 ALA affiliates manage some variation of the IAQ TFS program.. The annual ALA/ATS conference will be held in San Diego April 23-28,.
|IAQ Management in School Activities
|Schools implementing IAQ Tools for Schools
|Schools committed to implement IAQ Tools for Schools
|Schools personnel trained on IAQ Tools for Schools
|People reached through IAQ Tools for Schools programs
|Educational materials distributed
|Health fairs, community presentation, and conferences attended
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Air Resources Board / Indoor Air Quality & Personal Exposure Assessment
- Peggy Jenkins ( and Steve Hui ()
Davis Appointment. Dr. Alan Lloyd was named as the new Chair for the ARB. Dr. Lloyd's welcoming remarks can be found at .
Characterization of the Composition of Personal, Indoor, and Outdoor Particulate Exposures. Contract manager:. Key components of the project include:
Development of a Short-Averaging-Time Indoor Nitrogen Dioxide Monitor. Contract manager: Dorothy Shimer, , . Expected completion: Spring.
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Department of Health Service / Environmental Health Investigations Branch
- Sandra McNeel (
Mold in Our Environment Workshop. On December 14, 1998, Sandy McNeel was one of the presenters at a workshop on Mold in Our Environment for the Human Rights/Fair Housing Commission of the City/County of Sacramento. Other members of the expert panel were James Craner (occupational physician), John Banta (Restoration Consultants), Joseph Lstiburek (Building Science Corp.), and Karen Kahn (attorney). The Forum was recorded and broadcasted several times on Sacramento Local Access TV, and the videotape can be ordered from the Commission for $20
Editor's Note: The Forum on Mold is one of the best ~3-hour videotapes I have seen on this subject. The speakers are among the most respected in their fields, their presentations are clear and concise, and the production quality is very good. This would have to be the best $20 investment a Health or Housing Department could make to start educating their staff on the various aspects of mold-related health effects and building problems. Another set of highly useful resources can be found at Joe's Building Science Corporation web site
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Department of Health Service / Indoor Air Quality Section
- Jed Waldman ()
Controlled Environment Chamber: Construction is almost complete on a controlled environment chamber at the DHS Laboratory. In April, research work in the chamber will be initialized by the our branch's vacuum cleaner testing program for a HUD grant.
VOC Emissions Testing. We plan to start VOC emissions testing of building materials, as part of IAQ modeling for the DHS Richmond Laboratory Facility under construction. We are in the process of hiring a student assistant to help us with the small chamber protocols. Eventually, we hope to use the EHLB Controlled Environment Chamber to test emissions from office furnishings.
Unvented Gas Heater - Standards Development. The draft Proposed Standards for the Sale and Use of Natural-gas-fueled Unvented Decorative Gas Logs and Fireplaces were distributed to the Advisory Group in mid-February. The Advisory Group met on March 3, to provide comments. At the meeting, representatives from the Vent Free Gas Products Alliance, an industry group for unvented heater manufacturers, presented their critique of the Proposed Standards. They pointed out parts of the standards which they felt were unduly stringent, as well as other parts they felt put unnecessary burden on manufacturers. Representatives from CARB and California Energy Commission, as well as other stakeholders, were concerned that the Proposed Standards would not adequately protect the public from IAQ-related risks. A case study of residential unvented gas heater use and combustion product exposures was presented by Professor Shelly Miller of the University of Colorado. Her data showed higher-than-acceptable CO and NO2 concentrations under some operating conditions. Currently, Southern California Gas Company is conducting a study in the residences of ~30 employees who received the free use of an unvented gas heater. This study is principally a "user satisfaction" survey, but So. Cal. will conduct indoor air quality measurements in about 10 homes, under worse-case conditions to test the upper range of potential exposures to CO and NO2. The DHS had been working to prepare rulemaking for submission and review by the California Building Standards Commission in time for the adoption cycle. The Advisory Group agreed that there was not sufficient consensus to push forward the Proposed Standards for the cycle.
Radon Studies. A Geographical Information System (GIS) database for Ventura/Santa Barbara Counties has been established, and descriptive and analytical analyses are currently in process. As part of a U.S. EPA-funded State Indoor Radon Grant, we are starting a residential radon survey in the Sierra Foothill region of California. Approximately 1000 homes will be monitored for long-term (~1 year) radon concentrations. We plan also to investigate seasonal patterns of radon concentrations and the association with geological and home parameters. Because of the pending promulgation of a standard for Radon in drinking water, additional funding is being sought for a pilot study to help evaluate multimedia radon mitigation programs for California. For further information,
VOC Guidelines. Leon Alevantis has been working with staff at the Department of General Services to attempt the incorporation of IAQ measures in their pilot program to addresses energy and green building issues (see Building Design & Operations Committee report below).
Research Support on the Children's Health Study. Janet Macher () is co-investigator on the UCBerkeley research project (PI: Brenda Eskenazi: Community Partnership for Evaluating and Preventing Pesticide Exposures to Young Children. She is assisting on the design of questionnaires and sampling/analytical protocols for the study.
Department of Health Service / Occupational Health Branch
- Jim Cone () and Liz Katz ()
Investigation of Problem School. OHB staff are involved in follow-up investigation of problem classrooms at the Crescent Elementary School in Fairfield-Suisun, and they anticipate issuing a report soon.
N-Hexane in Brake Cleaner. HESIS received a report of 2 cases of peripheral neuropathy (numbness and tingling in the extremities) associated with the use of a n-hexane containing brake cleaner. This was first reported to HESIS by an Occupational Medicine Physician in October. HESIS has responded by reviewing prior scientific literature regarding this hazard, well known for at least 25 years. HESIS, beginning in December, notified the union representing many machinists in similar shops, the International Association of Machinists, regarding our concerns. In addition, on January 5,, HESIS notified the California Motor Car Dealers Association representing employers of mechanics who may use such products of our concern. We have been in discussions by phone with representatives of one n-hexane product distributor (Berryman) about this issue. Related activities ongoing include:
Department of Industrial Relations (Cal/OSHA)
- Jim Lin ()
Asbestos Training. DIR-DOSH is implementing a program to approve asbestos training based on regulations that became effective on January 2,. The new program will approve AHERA and other asbestos training courses required by Cal OSHA.
Updated PELs. DOSH is finalizing a proposal to update the Permissible Exposure Limits of the airborne contaminants listed in 8 CCR 5155.
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- Obed Odoemelam ()
A workshop on commercial kitchen emissions was held on Feb 22 at PG&E's Pacific Energy Center in San Francisco. This wokshop was conducted by the Food Service Technology Center in San Ramon CA, which is being contracted by PG&E under the CEC-managed Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program. The workshop is one of the deliverables for the present phase of the research project. It was attended mostly by individuals associated with the commercial kitchen industry from California and other states, and it addressed the following aspects of emissions from commercial kitchens:
Hal Levin ()
ASTM Indoor Air Subcommittee meeting. ASTM Subcommittee D22.05 on Indoor Air will meet April 19-21, in Seattle WA. There will be a one-day (actually two half-days) workshop on emissions testing and a committee meeting. The workshop will be Monday afternoon and Tuesday morning. The subcommittee meeting will be Tuesday afternoon and Wednesday morning. There are several standards being developed and balloted for emissions tests, and more to come. The NRC Canada large chamber draft standard (in collaboration with U.S. EPA and Australian CSIRO) will be presented as well.
Indoor Air and Health Conference. NSF International will sponsor a three-day conference, May 3-5, in Denver, CO. The conference will focus on indoor air and health. Many well-known authorities will be keynote or plenary lecturers or commentators, among them Peggy Jenkins of CARB and Bill Nazaroff of UC Berkeley. You can request information from .
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Berkeley National Laboratory - Indoor Environment Program
- Mike Apte ()
Mike provided abstract/summaries for three current IAQ-related projects for the IEP group; a summary of Al Hodgson's VOC emission project is reported above in the Special Presentation.
Further Characterization of Environmental Tobacco Smoke
Principal Investigator: Rich Sextro (); co-Investigators: Michael Apte, Lara Gundel, Brett Singer
Sponsor: Tobacco Related Disease Research Program (California Tobacco Tax)
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) - the smoke released from the burning end of the cigarette - is a common source of environmental exposure to carcinogens by the general public. However, little is known about the extent of exposures to ETS. The objective of this research is to improve the basis for estimating ETS exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research will utilize experiments conducted in both laboratory and 'real-world' buildings to:
Causal Relationships Between Exposures to VOCs and "Sick Building
Principal Investigator: Joan Daisey (); co-Investigator: Michael Apte
Sponsor: DOE Office of Building Technology
Causal associations between "Sick Building Syndrome" (SBS) symptoms and specific environmental stressors were explored using a recently developed approach employing Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Logistic Regression [Ten Brinke, J., Selvin, S, Hodgson, A. T., Fisk, et al.. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to "Sick Building Syndrome" symptoms, Indoor Air 8]. This approach was applied to data collected by the U.S. EPA from to in 28 large U.S. office buildings in the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation study. PCA was used to apportion measurements of 13 VOC species and carbon monoxide into source-related vectors. A reduced set of four source-based exposure vectors, tentatively identified as photocopiers, automotive emissions, environmental tobacco smoke, and latex paints were derived from the data. Regression analyses indicate statistically significant associations between mucous membrane related symptoms and the PCA photocopier vector (odds ratio=1.2, p=0.04), after adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, presence of carpeting, and thermal exposure. Similar relationships (odds ratio=1.2, p=0.03) were found between sore throat symptoms and the PCA paint vector.
An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship Between Adverse Health
Effects of Airborne Particles and their chemical Composition
Principal Investigator: Joan Daisey; co-Investigators: Feng Tsai, Michael Apte
Sponsor: LBNL Laboratory Directed R&D Program (LDRD)
We are exploring relationships
between daily mortality and the major sources of airborne particulate matter
(PM) using a variant of a recently developed approach which
employs Factor Analysis (FA) with Poisson Regression. We hypothesize
that by adding information on PM chemical speciation and source apportionment
to the typical PM health epidemiological analysis, we will be able
to identify and evaluate the impact of those PM sources that cause adverse
health effects. Previous PM health studies have generally used PM
mass or a single PM component, such as sulfate, as exposure metrics.
In our approach, FA is used first to convert multiple, highly correlated
chemical speciation variables, such as trace metals, to a smaller number
of linearized sums of the individual variables, i.e., a smaller number
of factors. The factors, which are related to the sources of the PM via
chemical markers, are then used as exposure metrics in Poisson regression
with weather variables included for confounder control.
The method has been applied to a unique PM data set with extensive chemical speciation, including measurements of nine trace metals, sulfate, particulate organic matter and meteorological data made in three New Jersey cities (Camden, Newark and Elizabeth) from to (Lioy and Daisey). Mortality data for total, cardiovascular and respiratory causes of were retrieved from the mortality data tapes from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accidental deaths and homicides were excluded from the total death/mortality.
We have found statistically significant associations (p-value£0.10) between daily mortality and several of the seven FA-derived PM factors/sources. These PM sources were residual oil burning, industry sources, "sulfate aerosol," and "motor vehicles emissions." In Newark and Camden, there were statistically significant associations between total mortality and the factors related to residual oil burning. Cardiovascular death was also significantly related to oil burning in Camden. In Newark, both industrial sources and sulfate had statistically significant associations with total mortality and cardiovascular mortality. The motor vehicle emissions source was a significant predictor of cardiovascular death only in Camden. For Elizabeth, no statistically significant relationships were found between total mortality and any of the source emissions metrics. The relative risks for the FA/PR model are higher than those obtained for simpler PM exposure metrics including inhalable PM mass and fine PM mass without consideration of sources.
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of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment / Indoor Air Risk Assessment
- Richard Lam ()
Reference Manual on Indoor Air Contaminants. The IARAG has completed the document, Draft Reference Manual for Selected Indoor Air Contaminants: Inhalation Toxicity Criteria. It will be submitted to CARB in April. The Manual contains chemical-specific health effects summaries for 64 selected indoor air contaminants and includes a section, which describes the background, development, limitations, interpretations and uses of the Manual. In the chemical-based summaries, information was compiled for each chemical and includes: (a) health-based inhalation toxicity criteria (exposure values developed to protect human health); (b) indoor and ambient exposure source information; (c) major use information; (d) acute, chronic and cancer health effects evaluations; and (e) chemical and physical properties information.
Workshop on Library Database Software Program. The Occupational and Environmental Health Library is having a workshop to teach and familiarize users of ProCite (Version V4 for Windows and Macintosh). Learn to organize references, create bibliographies, and manage personal collections of bibliographic references. You will never have to retype a reference to format bibliographies for professional papers, create and maintain departmental research databases, etc. The workshop will on May 14, at the Bioscience Library Seminar Room, Valley Life Science Building, UCBerkeley, at 10:00 am - 12 noon.
IAQ Episode at Sonoma County Bank. We answered an interesting call from an environmental consultant about naphthalene in the indoor air of a bank in Sonoma County. Levels measured in the bank were 52 and 73 mg/m3. Complaints included irritation (eyes, nose and upper respiratory, headaches, dizziness, etc.). One bank employee is pregnant. The bank building is 80 years old and the smell of naphthalene is common inside the bank for "years", but only recently has the odor brought about the complaints. Apparently, the odor comes from the crawl space of the building where the smell was "unbearable". The naphthalene apparently comes from the soil and was "painted" on the supporting wood beams. How it gets there is still a mystery.
Presentation at NIEHS Town Meeting. Bart Ostro, ATES, gave a talk on his study, Investigation of Effects of Environmental Contaminants on African-American Children with Asthma, during the NIEHS' Protecting Children's Health with a Focus on Healthy Schools Town Hall Meeting in the Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, February 19,1999. His study indicates that (a) there is an association between acute exposure to air pollution and exacerbation of symptoms among children with asthma; (b) there is an association between acute exposure to air pollution and reduction in peak flow and increases in medication among certain children with asthma; and (c) daily exposures to pollens and molds exacerbate asthma.
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EPA Region IX / Indoor Environment Team
- Barbara Spark (
IAQ Tools for Schools
Mold and Schools. In February, the California Teachers' Association published a long article, "This Property is Neglected," on the condition of California school facilities in it's monthly publication, California Educator (). In addition to frequent references to mold problems, one section specifically dealt with shutdown of a particular school, and referred readers to Sid Efross in our office to request an IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit. As a result, Sid has received over 100 calls, some of which report very troubling mold problems which have been addressed in sub-optimal fashion.
IAQ Training. IAQ training workshops in the SF Bay and LA areas in January/February went very well, with the exception of a new workshop on IAQ for Facilities Managers, which was well-received, but attracted only about 20 attendees in Walnut Creek. This course was developed with commercial facility managers and building administrators in mind, and got some marketing assistance from BOMA, but there was almost no attendance from commercial buildings. On the other hand, school district facilities and risk officials are an increasing presence at all our U. of Tulsa training center's workshops, including some of the more advanced moisture/mold events.
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of California at Berkeley - Environment Health and Safety
- Phil Maynard, UCB-EH&S ()
IAQ Manual. The UC-wide EH&S Committee has completed an IAQ guidance manual, which addresses education, prevention and investigation protocols. We feel the manual is very useful, and the document is posted on the web by our colleagues at UC Santa Cruz EH&S.
Training Video. At UCBerkeley, I have given IAQ maintenance training to our building engineers using a 4 part video from Indoor Air Services Inc. . They will provide trial loaning of their video which cost $365. We felt it was useful for our HVAC maintenance staff.
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WORKING GROUP COMMITTEES
Environmental Quality of Schools
- Jed Waldman ()
Assembly Bill 1207. Assembly Bill (AB) 1207 has been introduced by Assembly Member Kevin Shelley and will be heard in Assembly Environmental Safety and Toxic Materials Committee the first two weeks of April. This bill, called the Healthy Schools Act of, addresses the problems of pesticide use, lead, poor indoor air quality, and radon in schools. CIWG-IAQ members, Jonathan Kaplan and Zev Ross, are helping to draft bill language for Assemblyman Shelly, and they shared a copy of the current version with the Committee. This language is expected to be introduce in early April and can be found on the California LegInfo web site under "Bill Information".
Call for IAQ Tools for Schools Mentors. Recently, Barbara Spark (U.S. EPA Region IX) sent out a call to CIWG-IAQ members (and others) to volunteer as mentors to help individual schools implement the IAQ-TFS program. In the especially troubled Oakland Unified School District, U.S. EPA Region IX is putting together a special incentive package to encourage school principals: a guarantee that the first 10 schools to enroll in a one-year pilot program implementation will receive assistance from a volunteer IAQ TFS mentor. This mentoring will borrow from the ALALAC model, and it will also take advantage of the experience and availability of U.S. EPA Indoor Environments Team members for additional direct participation. Volunteers are particularly needed for the Oakland project, but similar activities can be conducted in other districts. New resource materials and a database of existing district trainees are now available.
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Design and Operations
- Leon Alevantis (cal-iaq.org/)
DGS Green Team. At the CIWG-IAQ meeting in December, John Kaschak of the DGS's Real Estate Services Division (RESD) announced that DGS was forming a Charter Team to address issues related to green buildings. Leon Alevantis was able to join the Team after it had met on several occasions. The Team is headed by the Energy Assessments Section of DGS (John Baca, chairman) and had consisted entirely of DGS staff. It was formed initially to address energy efficiency issues. However, the Team realized that green building issues had to be addressed, especially since SB 280 was introduced. The Team was very open to IAQ issues and agreed to separate these issues from green building-related. Leon gave the members of the Team copies of our Committee's recommendations, given to Mike Courtney's office last year. They agreed to include these recommendations in their report. The Team has now finished its report which was presented to a Steering Committee within DGS. This Committee will decide whether DGS should try to implement some or all of the Team's recommendations on a pilot basis.
IAQ Recommendations. The recommendations given to DGS were discussed during out meeting. It was clear that not all committee members agreed with all the recommendations and that the list of recommendations should be updated.
Senate Bill 280. This bill was introduced by Senator Debra Bowen last February, and it is almost identical to AB 2432, which was vetoed by Governor Wilson last September. SB 280 would require all new state buildings and public schools designed and constructed after January to exceed the minimum building energy-efficiency standards mandated by the California Building Standards Code and to also follow green building measures. Indoor air quality is mentioned in the bill as well as the use of low-emitting building materials. The bill would amend the California Government Code (Section 15814.30 et seq.), requiring the California Integrated Management Board in consultation with DGS, CEC, and DHS to promulgate regulations prescribing green building measures and the control of indoor air quality. The text of the bill as well its current status can be found at
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Upcoming meetings of the CIWG-IAQ are scheduled as follows:
Leon Alevantis / CA DHS IAQ ProgramJed Waldman chaired the meeting, which lasted from 10 am to 12:30 pm
Mike Apte / Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Indoor Environment Program
Tina Bahadori / EPRI
David Berger / ALA of LA County
Rachel Broadwin / OEHHA Air Toxics & Epidemiology Section
Simone Brumis / CA DHS Occupational Health Branch
Ken Dudash / San Bernandino Co. Supt. of Schools
Lara Gundel / Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Indoor Environment Program
Al Hodgson / Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Indoor Environment Program
Steve Hui / CA Air Resource Board IAQPEP
Dennis Jordan / Alameda County Lead Poisoning Prevention Program
Nitin Kapadia / CA DHS IAQ Program
Jonathan Kaplan / CalPIRG
Diane Kihara / CalEPA Integrated Waste Management Board
Richard Lam / OEHHA Air Toxics & Epidemiology Section
Jim Lim / Cal OSHA
Janet Macher / CA DHS IAQ Program
Jennifer Mann / S.F. Department of Health Community Health Epidemiology
Phil Maynard / UCBerkeley Environmental Health & Safety
Sandra McNeel / CA DHS Environ. Health Investigation
Atho Mok / CalEPA Integrated Waste Management Board
Raymond Neutra / CA DHS Division of Environ. & Occup. Disease Control
Obed Odoemelam / California Energy Commission
Shelly Rosenblum / U.S. EPA Region IX
Zev Ross / Environmental Working Group
Mike Rothenberg / Bay Area Air Quality Management Board
Jim Sanborn / CA Department of Pesticide Regulation, Worker Health & Safety
Rajinder Sandhu / Department of Consumer Affairs, Home Furn. & Thermal Insul.
Steve Schwartzberg / Alameda County Lead Poisoning Prevention Program
Dorothy Shimer / CA Air Resource Board IAQPEP
Barbara Spark / U.S. EPA Region IX
Greg Traynor / T. Marshall Associates, Ltd.
Jed Waldman / CA DHS IAQ Program
George Young / Alameda County Environmental Health Division
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printed: April 6, (11:59AM)
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